Sunday, October 27, 2019

Physical Education In Schools | Essay

Physical Education In Schools | Essay Education, in the broad sense, can be considered as any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. Formal education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage, accumulated knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to another. It involves planned programs and distinct methods for the purpose of accomplishing educational objectives. No doubt education has been a state subject, but the centre has always kept a keen vigil over its development (Naik, 1974). Physical education is one of the elements of education; which through physical activity can transform knowledge, values and skills-as a result of participation in muscular activities. Much can be learned about environment, others, and ownselves through this form of participation. Furthermore, it can significantly influence the development of ones personality and ability to function effectively (Ali, 2005). The central advisory board of physical education and recreation (1964) emphasized that physical education is an integral part of the education- education through physical activity to develop the total personality of the child to its fulfillment and perfection in body, mind and spirit. It is concerned with the development of physical fitness. In driving for such fitness, however, physical education has to train the children mentally, morally with social qualities, arouse its awareness about environment and develop alertness, presence of mind, resourcefulness, discipline, co-ordination and the spirit of respect, sympathy and generosity towards others-qualities that are essential for making congruence with the environment to live a happy and well adjusted life in a free and democratic world. Physical education can thus make a very valuable contribution to our national life. UNESCO (1999) asserted that everything that influences behaviour and personality is education. By encouraging development of the childs abilities, physical education and sport constitute the very foundation of education, a veritable schooling for life in society. Instead of the mind-body dichotomy it would seem preferable to adopt the principles of unity and parity. It is desirable in any case that in the first instance children, and especially adolescents, should be helped to gain awareness of their bodies and the psycho-physical unity of their being, because physical learning is not only physical activity, but also knowledge. It emphasizes that physical education has a fixed place in the school timetable and it is seen one of the only subjects which offers the opportunity for students to improve their physical fitness, develop physical and social skills, and gain knowledge which is not included in other areas of the curriculum. It has further emphasized that the physical education has a major role to play in the development of young people. It is closely linked to other creative learning experiences and skill acquisition. The history of physical education reflects peoples attitudes about physical activity from prehistoric times, because the phenomenon survival of fittest was directly related to physical prowess to find food. Gradually, ancient societies in China, Egypt, Greece, and Rome adopted physical education as part of military training. As the more developed societies came to value the scholarly life, physical education lost favor. In the 11th five year plan (2007-2012) the working group on sports and physical education has suggested that accentuated sports and Games as a vital component of social and cultural life are embedded in the Indian heritage, and can be found in the archaeological excavations of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the Vedic literature, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Puranas, the literary works of eminent scholars such as Kautilya, Kalidasa, Panini and Dandin, as well as in Buddhist and Jain literature. Physical activities had been seen as an intrinsic component of education and valuable and effective means for the development of human personality in the philosophical texts of ancient Greece, the progenitor of the Olympic movement. Every civilization has evolved and developed its own indigenous modes of physical endeavor and healthy social interaction through a variety of games and sports. Apart from being a means of physical exercise and fitness, sports and games have been a medium of entertai nment, the generation of a spirit of healthy competition, bonding and pride in the community, and an avenue of constructive preoccupation for active young generation. Physical education and sport, although closely linked, are not synonymous. Sport is formalised physical activity involving competition or challenges against oneself, others or the environment, with an emphasis on winning. It begins in play and develops through games and challenges. The focus in the physical education curriculum is on the childs holistic development, stressing personal and social development, physical growth, and motor development. Goal-setting, within the curriculum, focuses on individual improvement and not on winning or being the best Primary School Curriculum, (1999). Participation in physical education and sport programs provide students with an opportunity to develop their decision-making, problem solving and social skills through a health enhancing environment which contributes to enjoyment, increased mental alertness and an understanding about the importance of physical activity for life long benefits. Therefore, the planning and management of the physical education curriculum in schools should always have to be child-centered, mainly focusing on their overall development and providing rich and varied experiences physical education sports policy for schools, Saint Lucia, (2002). It has been found that after the independence of the country numerous commissions have been appointed by the Central and State governments to study various aspects of education, point out the pit-falls and to suggest the appropriate measures for over-coming them. Some of the pioneer education commissions and their specific significant recommendations with special reference to physical education and sports have been presented here under for reference in view of their relevance in the context of the present empirical research work: Sri Ramaswamy Mudaliar Commision (1952-53) The Mudaliar Commission Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) recommended that in physical education group games and individual physical exercises should be given in the schools under the supervision of Director of physical education. It also recommend that, all teachers or at least those below the age of 40 should actively participate in many of the activities of physical education and thus make it a living part of total school program instead of being a side issue entrusted to an isolated member of the staff. It placed special value on group games as they help to mould charter of students in addition to affording recreational facilities and contributing to their physical well being. The All India Council of Sports (1954) This council was constituted by Union Ministry of Education to advise Government on all matters related to sports and games including financial assistance to sports organizations. It acted as liaison between various sports bodies and the government. It advised sports organizations, suggested steps for development of playgrounds etc., adopted suitable measures to improve sports standards, ensured proper use of funds and facilitated National teams to go abroad for participation in sports competitions. Ad hoc Inquiry Committee for Games and Sports (1958) This committee was appointed by the central government under the chairmanship of Maharaja of Patiala. It investigated the persistently low standards of Indian teams in sports and games at Olympics and other international competitions. The committee recommended that better facilities should be made available, credits should be given to players for achievements in sports and talented players should be provided with nutrition. Kunzuru Committee (1959) It was appointed to examine the report on the schemes of physical education, sports and character building programs in educational institutions. It recommended the measures for effective co-ordination of different schemes as well as the graded syllabus in physical education for the first time in the country. Dr CD Deshmukh Committee (1963) It was appointed by University grant Commission to examine the facilities of physical education and standards of sports and games in the Indian Universities and Colleges. It was also to recommend measures to be taken to improve standards. It recommended that highest priority should be given to physical education in Universities and colleges. The recommendations emphasized on provisions of basic facilities on the basis of grant-in-aid and need of coaching of talented students. Education Ministers Conference (1964) The conference of Education Ministers of the states in 1956, 1959 and 1964 recommended that greater attention should be given to the provision of playgrounds in educational institutions and adequate funds should be provided for this purpose and also that physical exercises, sports and games must be provided for every student. The conferences recommended that physical education is an integral part of the education- education through physical activity to develop the total personality of the child to its fulfillment and perfection in body, mind and spirit, immediately. It is concerned with the development of physical fitness. In driving for such fitness, however, physical education has necessarily to train the children mentally, morally and social qualities, arouse its awareness of environment and develop alertness, presence of mind, resourcefulness, discipline, co-ordination and the spirit of respect, sympathy and generosity towards other qualities that are essential for a happy and we ll adjusted life in a free and democratic world. Physical education can thus make a very valuable contribution to our national life. The report of the Education Commission (1966) The report observes that there has been a tendency in recent Government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness values. The report has laid down the following principles upon which a satisfactory programme of physical education should be based: a) Physical education programmes should be planned for desirable outcomes keeping in mind the interest and capacity of the participant. b) Special Instruction and coaching should be provided to students with talent and special aptitude. Kothari Commission (1966) The Kothari Commission (Education Commission) 1964-66 recommended that it must be emphasized that physical education contributes not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency, mental alertness, and development of certain qualities like perseverance, team spirit, leadership and obedience to rules, moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical education should include development exercises, rhythmic activity, sports and games, outing activities and group handling activities. Simpler activities should be introduced in the early classes more advanced ones should be gradually provided as boys and girls become more and more mature. Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1981-82) This committee had laid special emphasis on physical education and sports in school education and has pointed out the need for adequate time provision for this area of school work. The Committee has suggested that physical education at the primary stage should include: (a) dance (b) games including training; (c) yoga; (d) gymnastics and (e) swimming. The Report of The All India Seminar on Problems of Physical Education and Sports for School and Non-school Going Youth (1981-82) The report has came to the following conclusions: a) That physical education and sports have not yet become a mass movement in the life of the people of India. b) There is absence of a workable programme, lack of facilities, equipment and properly trained personnel to implement the programmes of physical education and sports in educational institutions; c) There is a large out of school youth population for which there is particularly no provision for sports activities; d) Special efforts must be made to popularize physical education and sports among women and girls. Sports Authority of India: Sports Authority of India was established in 1984, with the aim to develop the sports infrastructure in various parts of the country on one hand and thus to produce elite sports persons for International participation on the other hand. One of the progressive steps was the re-organization of the departments under the Union Ministry of Education and the creation of Ministry of human Resource Development. So far as physical education, sports and youth development are concurred, this new ministry has created the Sports Authority of India in 1984 to look after all aspects relating to physical education, sports, adventure sports and other youth development programmes. This organization (SAI) has been trying hard to co-ordinate all schemes relating to training and coaching of physical education and sports, developing infrastructure facilities in the country and rendering useful advise to the government in matters relating to sports and games. However, it is the Sports Authority of India (SAI), which has been responsible for promotion of sports in the country. Many of the countrys leading sports persons are products of SAI system. Over the years SAI has initiated various schemes to spot talent and nurture them. N.C.E.R.T. Curriculum (1988) The NCERT developed the national curriculum for elementary and secondary in 1988 to reflect the postulates of the National Policy of Education and the Programmes of action, 1986. The main thrust of this exercise was to provide for the national core-curriculum in the school syllabi as postulated in the National Policy and to integrate physical education with the academic program in the schools. The core-curriculum states that health and physical education and sports should be an integral part of the learning process and be included in the evaluation of performance. It underlines the important place of mental and emotional health in addition to physical health. It also states that amongst the sports and games activities due stress should be made on the indigenous traditional games. As a system which promotes integral development of the body and mind. The core-curriculum envisages 10% of the time in the school time table for health and physical education at primary stage, 10% at upper primary stage and 9% at secondary stage. Annual Plan (1999-2000) An outlay of Rs 190 crore had been approved for the Department of Youth Affair Sports for the Annual Plan 1999-2000. The thrust was on harnessing Yuva Shakti and Development of Sports Infrastructure and promotion of Sports and games in the following ways:- Integration of various schemes of youth implemented by the Department of Youth Affairs Sports was emphasized with a view to develop linkage between programmes and to make available more funds for programme contents rather than administrative cost. There was need to take wider perspective and integrate sports as part of education system. For that purpose, department of education is to earmarked funds for sports promotion, upkeep of playgrounds, sports infrastructure under Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodya Vidyalayas, training of physical education instructors etc. Similarly, the state Governments were also provided additive provision for sports in their education Budgets so that improved sports facilities would become available to youth. Special attention was given to the promotion of sports and games among the special children by providing specially designed equipment, playgrounds and instructors and by holding of tournaments. Need was felt to formulate a scheme for the promotion of sports among the special population. In order to implement the recommendations of these commissions and committees regarding physical education and sports, ministry of youth affairs and sports has been created by centre government in 1982. For ensuring mass participation in games and sports and to create sporting environment in the country, Sports Authority of India came into being in 1984. Besides above, the government of India has formulated national policies for education as well as sports time to time wherein for the promotion of games and sports, specific objectives have been spelled out. National Policy on Education (1968) Soon after the report of the Kothari Commission, National Policy on Education was enunciated in (1968) and was specified that games and sports should be developed on a large scale with the object of improving the physical fitness and sportsmanship of the average students as well as those who excel in the institution. Where playing fields and other facilities for developing a nationwide programme of physical education did not exist, those had to be provided on priority basis. The Draft National Sports Policy (1980) It has laid down the enlisted aims and objectives of the three-fold new sports policy (a) to inculcate sports and health consciousness among the masses for regular participation in sports and to make the nation healthy and strong (b) to raise the standards in sports and in the process earn a place of pride in international sports competitions; (c) to provide all the necessary facilities and infrastructure which are essential for creating sports consciousness and promotion of the standards of performance in sports. National Policy on Education (1986) As modified in (1992) with National Policy on Education, (1968), Sports and physical education is an integral part of the learning process, and will be included in the evaluation of performance. A nation-wide infrastructure for physical education, sports and games will be built into the educational edifice. The infrastructure will consist of playfields, equipment, coaches and teachers of physical education as part of the school improvement programme. Available open spaces in urban areas will be reserved for playgrounds, if necessary by legislation. Efforts will be made to establish sports institutions and hostels where specialized attention will be given to sports activities and sports-related studies, along with normal education. Appropriate encouragement will be given to those talented in sports and games. Due stress will be laid on indigenous traditional games. Efforts will be made to introduce Yoga in all schools. To this end, it will be introduced in teacher training courses. National Sports Policy (2001) The National Sports Policy, 1984 was formulated with the objective of raising the standard of sports in the country. The National Education Policy, 1986 also incorporated the objectives of the policy in so far as the Education Sector was concerned. In terms of the National Sports Policy, 2001, the Central Government, in conjunction with the State Government, the Olympic Association (IOA) and the National Sports Federation will concertedly pursue the twin objectives of Broad-basing of Sports and Achieving Excellence in Sports at the National and International level. While the broad-basing of Sports will, primarily remain a responsibility of State Governments. The Union Government and the Sports Authority of India (SAI), in association with the Indian Olympic Association and the National Sports Federations, will focus specific attention on the objective of achieving excellence at the National and International levels. The integration of Sports and Physical Education with the Educational Curriculum, making it a compulsory subject of learning up to the Secondary School level and incorporating the same in the evaluation system of the student, will be actively persuaded. A National Fitness Programme would be introduced in all Schools in the Country, steps initiated to augment the availability of infrastructure, including play fields sports equipment and action taken to provide Physical Education Teachers in educational institutions through, inter-alia, the training of selected teachers in these disciplines. Specialized Sports Schools may also be set up. An appropriate inter-school and inter-college/university competition. National Youth Policy (2003) The earlier National Youth Policy was formulated in(1988). Its objectives were to help develop in youth qualities of discipline, self- reliance, justice and fair-play. It emphasized that physical fitness will be promoted through mass participation in yoga, indigenous games and modern sports will be made an integral part of all youth programmes, together with adventure activities calculated to develop the spirit of risk taking, team work and endurance. The socio-economic conditions in the country have since undergone a significant change and have been shaped by wide-ranging technological advancement. The National Youth Policy-2003 is designed to galvanize the youth to rise up to the new challenges, keeping in view the global scenario, and aims at motivating them to be active and committed participants in the exciting task of National Development. The Policy, accordingly enunciates that: Sports and games be promoted as a mass movement by making it a way of life; Sports, Games and Physical Education including Yoga, should be compulsory in all Educational Institutions; Every educational institution should have adequate facilities for recreation, adventure and sports activities, including playgrounds; At least one-fifth of the time spent by a student in an educational institution should be earmarked for outdoor activities; Geographically disadvantaged areas would be extended additional support for the promotion of Sports and Games; Rural, traditional and indigenous sports would be accorded special attention and it would be the responsibility of the Panchayat institutions with the help of local youth organizations to develop and maintain infrastructure for this purpose. This involvement of organized youth bodies such as youth clubs under the NYKS, the volunteers of the NSS and the Scouts and Guides in the creation and maintenance of sports infrastructure will go a long way in reducing the high cost of such infrastructure; A National Youth Festival will be held each year, starting at the Block level and culminating at the National level; Youth Hostels would be constructed in as many places of historical and cultural interest as possible, to promote youth tourism; Youth Organizations devoted to such activities will be encouraged; Adventure activities among the youth be promoted to inculcate qualities of leadership, resilience, courage, discipline and love for nature and the environment. In addition to the efforts made by the Central government, various state governments have also formulated sports policies for their respective states for the upliftment of games and sports as well as to involve youth in sporting activities. In addition to the efforts made by the Central Government, various state governments have formulated sports policies for their respective states for the upliftment of games and sports as well as to involve youth in sporting activities. These are as follows: State Sports Policy Meghalaya (2008) State Level Excellence (2008) Madhya Pradesh Sports Policy (2005) Haryana Sports Policy (2009) Punjab Sports Policy (2009) Draft State Policy of Assam (2010) The Jammu and Kashmir Draft State Sports Policy (2006) The aim and objectives of the sports policy can be broadly defined as under:- To provide opportunity to all individuals of the state to engage themselves in constructive, healthy physical activity for personality development irrespective of caste, creed, color, region and religion. To provide reasonable and adequate facilities to all individuals of the state in pursuing the sports activity of their choice depending upon the socio-economic and climatic conditions. To create infrastructure in every nook and corner of the state over a period of time so that every individual can pursue the game of his choice at his door step. To broad-base and strengthen the sports and allied activities carried out by various organizations in order to provide opportunity to every individual to participate in competitive sports. To encourage the people living in remote and inaccessible areas to involve themselves in various activities carried out by various organizations. To promote and encourage rural and indigenous sports and allied activities specific to the area. To provide adequate opportunities in terms of infrastructure, coaching, specialized training for achieving excellence in sports. To encourage, promote and patronage the activities of various Autonomous bodies like State Sports Associations for bringing about perceptible qualitative improvement in various sports and games. To provide incentives to the outstanding sports persons of the State by providing scholarships, reservation in professional colleges and job opportunities in Government/Private sector so as to encourage them to achieve higher landmarks in their respective games. To provide specialized coaching along the scientific lines to promising persons in the State for better performance at National/International level. To provide necessary infrastructure and financial support for popularizing and promoting various adventure sports in the State. To provide reasonable and adequate scientific back up to the sports persons and the persons associated with the promotion of sports in order to keep up with the latest technology and methodologies for excellence in different disciplines. To provide patronage and requisite financial assistance and infrastructure support to various Non-Governmental organizations like Nehru Yuva Kendra, Bharat Scouts and Guides Association etc; in order help them in promoting their activities throughout the State. The present work is a sincere effort of the researcher to critically evaluate the policies and programmes of physical education and sports being run in the schools of Jammu and Kashmir. Definitions of the Terms Physical Education Physical Education is an integral part of total education process; it is a field of endeavour which has its aim the development of physically fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view of realizing these out comes. According to Williams (1964) Physical education is the sum of mans physical activities as to kind and conducted as to outcomes. The term Education when used in conjunction with physical, refers to a process of education that develops the human body especially fitness and movement skills (Pestolesi Baker, 1990). Programme Programme is an enlisted plan of events, performed at a public function. It is related to those activities which have distinctive mission and time schedule. Programmes is thus a means of achieving same desired results within the scheduled time. Policy Policy is a definite course or method of action selected by government, institution, group or individual from among alternatives and in the light of given conditions to guide and, usually, to determine present and future decisions.  · It is a specific decision or set of decisions designed to carry out such a course of action. Evaluation Neilson and Jensen (1972) have defined evaluation as a process of determining the status of something and of relating that status to some standard in order to make a value judgment. According to Chelladuri (1985) Evaluation is the process of assessing the degree to which the organization as a whole and various units and individuals have accomplished what they set out to do. The present study deals with critical evaluation of policies and programs of physical education and sports in Jammu and Kashmir. Physical education has been made compulsory by the Government in all Middle, High and Higher Secondary Schools but still needs special attention to find its rightful place in the general education. The researcher has undertaken this study keeping in view the intricacies and inadequacies of physical education and sports in the country in general and Jammu and Kashmir in particular. The review of literature has revealed that numerous researches have been conducted by the investigators regarding policies and programmes of physical education and sports in the states like Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana, etc. but no sincere effort by any researcher has so far been made to examine the status of physical education and sports in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in general and its schools in particular. Hence, the present researcher has made an attempt to evaluate the policies and programmes of physical education and sports in the schools of Jammu and Kashmir. Hence the present survey type study has been designed. Statement of the Problem The study has been stated as Critical evaluation of policies and programmes of physical education in the schools of Jammu and Kashmir. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to critically analyze the present state of policies and programmes of physical education and sports in the schools of Jammu and Kashmir, and thus to findout the existing shortcomings and inadequacies regarding these policies and programmes. Delimitations The study was delimited to high and higher secondary schools of Jammu and Kashmir regions. The study was delimited to the evaluation of programmes and policies regarding physical education and sports only at the level of high and higher secondary schools of Jammu and Kashmir regions. Only questionnaire methods were employed for collecting data regarding the present work which may also be a delimitation of the study. The study was further delimited to the government high and higher secondary schools of Jammu and Kashmir regions. Limitations As the present study was a status study and the method used for collecting data was survey method and the informations were gathered on a self designed questionnaire, it may be possible that some of the important informations might have left unaddressed. Biased approach of the respondents especially on some of the important matters may be considered as one of the limitations of the study. Casual attitude of the respondents has also been considered as the limitation of the study. Variations in climatic conditions of two regions of the state can also be considered as a limitation of the study. As the data was collected only from the physical education teachers and principals of the schools this may also be considered as a limitation. Hypotheses Keeping in view the objectives of the study, the following null hypotheses were formulated: There would be no proper implementation of policies and programmes of physical education and sports in the schools What is teamwork? What is teamwork? INTRODUCTION: TEAMWORK Teamwork is about galvanizing a group of people towards a common objective while simultaneously addressing the head yet appealing to the heart. Teamwork is also about bringing the best out of each individual in the pursuit of a collective goal deemed worthy of being realized. Therefore, according to Jon Katzenbach (a published author and consultant who is best known for his work on theinformal organisation.), ‘a teamis a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATION A challenging business climate needs to be engaged by effective teamwork. It provides an opportunity to come together and establish a common ground for the fulfillment of specific objectives. Empathy, appreciation and encouragement are some of the critical ingredients of effective teamwork. The vision must be bold, stir the intellect and yet move the heart. What is at stake needs to be clearly spelled out. Alcorn (2006) provides a definition of a team from 1886, which defines a team as work done by several associates, with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole. In a simple context, this means that a team is a collective whole of people that work together so that they are more productive. The key for any organisation is to possess a team that can be defined using Alcorns provided definition. A team isnt a team simply because a company pulls a group of workers together and calls them a team, but instead as a result of careful planning, hard work, and constant tweaking of team processes on a continuous basis. In todays competitive world where every organisation is striving to gain the best position in the market the concept of Group Development and Teamwork are steadily gaining importance. Individual decision making has taken a back stage and paved the way for team management approach for problem solving and decision making which has been productive for the organisations. This strategy not only benefits the organisation but also the individual employee, hence its been rapidly adopted by businesses. Management Professor Tracy McDonald states that The teamwork push probably started in business in the late 1970s or early 80s with the advent of quality circles [employee problem-solving teams],she says innovation, creativity and change have been some of the main drivers of team success and since the past 30 years, organisations have embraced this concept with welcoming hands. Yuki Funo the Chairman and CEO of Toyota motor, states that the â€Å"Toyota way is the way to number 1†. One of the principles of the Toyota way is to ‘add value to the organisation by developing your people and people can be developed by molding them into exceptional individuals and teams to work within the corporate philosophy. Nippard B. creator a Facebook group (teamwork ladder) on teamwork states that â€Å"more than 80% of fortune 500 companies subscribe to teamwork. Teamwork brings success no matter how you define victory.† Groups and Teams facilitate the organisation to achieve a competitive advantage because groups increase responsiveness to the organisations customers, employee motivation, increase creativity and they have also been capable of helping the members of organisation to enhance task performance and experience more satisfaction with their work. Team Responsiveness to Customers: It has been a priority for organisations to be elastic and readily responsible for the continuously changing needs, behavior and desires of customers. Being reactive to customers often requires different levels of the hierarchy departments to combine their skills and knowledge. For example, at the lower hierarchy the employees such as sales representatives of a car company, they are the people who are closest to the customers and are aware of the customer needs. But their job in the organisation is to just make sales of the cars and they cannot instill the desired changes into the car, which is in the field of the research and development department. For making the change a higher level of hierarchy is required such as research and development experts and other members who can come together and create a group or a cross- functional team who with its diverse skills and capability will enhance the responsiveness to customer needs. It is important for managers to understand the need and set up the appropriate cross-functional team who will carefully determine what type of expertise and capabilities are required to be responsive to the customers. This information is very vital for forming teams. A cross-functional team is the best solution thats aligned to any business needs can help you improve your efficiency and respond to customers more quickly. The needs of a customer are focused forming such cross functional teams and a satisfied customer is always an asset for any organisation. Employee Motivation: Kreitner R. (1995) has defined motivation as ‘the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. ‘Groups and teams are formed to increase the productivity and efficiency of an organisation. To do so Managers have learnt that increasing employee motivation and satisfying team members is the best way to achieve an organisations strategic objectives. It is also about the motivation of members of the group to stick with each other and oppose leaving it. Being motivating to the team members and giving them the experience of working with other creative members in the organisation is very inspiring and leads the team members to be more creative in their work and helps them to be more productive and increases their work effort. All the ideas generated are directly contributed in the final result and in the success of the organisational goals, and hence the members of the team feel personally responsible for the outcomes or results of their work. This satisfies the statement by Dwight D. Eisenhower thatMotivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it. Enhanced Performance and Synergy: ‘Synergy is the effect that the combined return â€Å"whole† is greater than the sum of the individual parts. (Sebastian Knoll, Cross-Business Synergies, page 14). The phenomenon of Synergy within a Group or Team has become one of the most vital parts for an organisation. People who work in groups are able to produce more efficiently and they confer greater quality of output than that produced by an individual and their productivity combined. Joint problem solving, variety in ideas and knowledge, different views towards an issue and accomplishing difficult tasks are some of the factors added by synergy in groups. To make utilize of synergy in groups managers need to make sure that, the group they put together comprise a variety of skills and talents which are diverse and corresponding but still relevant to the task, and being certain that these skills are coordinated efficiently. Managers should make sure that the groups achieve goals for the organisation in their own way and enough independence is provided to solve problems. Innovation: Organisations constantly strive to develop new products, services, new technologies and deliver them to the market. Innovation provides organisations with competitive advantage. An individual working alone might possess an innovative idea, but it takes a team with skills and expertise to execute it. For this reason, Managers create teams with different individuals, with diverse skills, knowledge, and a variety of talents so they can turn an individuals innovative idea to a successful one. Managers give maximum freedom to their teams to perform their tasks without interfering much and full responsibility is given to execute the innovation. Required guidance, training, and resources are provided by the Managers but the rest is in the hands of the team. Its therefore important to have skillful team mates and everyone should be specialized in their own work, to be more creative and quick which all lies as additional advantage to the team and organisation. Team Conflicts Teams do not work in isolation and are often highly dependent on other groups or teams within the organisation to complete their goals. Conflicts can arise due to several reasons but its often due to lack of agreement on the goals of different groups. Sometimes it also arises due to direct competition. The consequences of conflict can take two forms, positive and negative. Positive also known asconstructive conflicthelps teams work towards goals through healthy debate on the decision in question. Conflicts helps the team reduce conformity and unhealthy agreement, solve problems better and overcome obstacles to group progress. It also helps teams achieve goals outside the box through continuous feedback from both internal and external sources. Negative which is also known asdestructive conflicton the other hand can result in lack of cooperation within teams and this may prove disastrous to the final goal if not managed well at its early stages. There are following conflicts in groups which are causes of destructive conflicts. Relationship Conflict Task Conflicts Value Conflict It is therefore very important for managers to take control of all the problems right from their roots. Teams that face problems such as conflicts, risky shifts, groupthink and social loafing are a treat to the organisation and should be resolved at the earliest. Conclusion: Team oriented approach is the order of the day when it comes to successful organisations who have empowered their employees, motivated them and involved them in such a way that the existence of the organisation wouldnt have been possible without the existence of teams of such highly motivated individuals. Teamwork has bought the employee and the organisation closer than ever. Problem solving, creativity, innovation and shared vision are as synonymous to teamwork as teamwork is to success. Although team building is a complex process and there are many challenges that hinder a teams success. The effectiveness of teams is dependent upon a number of psychological factors that can inhibit or improve performance. Subtle processes such as social loafing, hierarchical effects, and personality differences can dramatically inhibit team performance. Within organisational settings, teams are usually put together and allowed to function without attempts being made to ensure effective functioning. The most important elements of team management are specifying individual and team goals and the design of the team task. At the same time there must be regular clear and accurate feedback to the team on its performance over time in order to promote effectiveness. The Future of Food: Seeds of Resilience The Future of Food: Seeds of Resilience Agriculture: Food for Life Number of words: 537 Writers name: Kush Upadhyay Address: 1127 Meredith Way, Folsom, CA 95630 Phone number: 9165009613 Date of birth: 04/21/1999 School name: Vista Del Lago High School Grade: 4.0 I referred to a paper titled The Future of Food: Seeds of Resilience published by Global Alliance for the Future of Food in September 2016. The publication for focused on several aspects of improving the agro industry. Global Alliance believes that diverse and robust seed systems are central to sustainable food systems that are renewable, healthy and interconnected. They understand the urgency for supporting farmer managed seed systems in order to enhance seed diversity. Bettina Haussmann, who works across Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger with the Collaborative Crop Research Program, talks about womens important role in agricultural biodiversity and the link to nutrition: Working specifically with women farmers to cultivate and maintain local crop and varietal diversity could be a chance to (re-) link agriculture with nutrition, to improve dietary diversity in rural families and to achieve desired nutritional results and the reduction of malnutrition and hidden hunger. Bettina Haussmann discuss about the link between daily value of agricultural biodiversity and its preservation: By valuing specific crops and varieties as healthy food and possibly creating a local value chain and local markets, farmers can be encouraged to add these crops and varieties to their existing portfolio, for improving family nutrition and also for income generation purposes. Jean-Louis Pham of Agropolis Fondation describes how community based seed systems are diverse and complex entities: There is a diversity of seed systems because of the diversity of eco-geographical and economic conditions, of the crop reproductive biology, of cultural factors, etc. Between yam seed systems in Benin and the rice seed systems in the Philippines, differences are huge, even though one can reasonably attempt to describe them with a single theoretical framework. It results from this diversity and complexity over space and time that ways to sustain, protect, and strengthen community based seed systems will have to be diverse, tailored and adaptive. In a sense, there is no best way to protect and strengthen community based seed systems-there are ways which are appropriate or not depending on the situation. Bettina Haussmann suggests we move to a more systems-oriented approach to breeding, where the different functions of a crop or cultivar in the production system are considered and improved/optimized. She writes: Such an approach actually includes a paradigm shift from promoting just a few best-bet varieties to promotion of functional diversity via the development of a portfolio of best-fit' varieties (varieties that are specifically adapted to different contexts, functions and needs). To enable this, a paradigm shift is needed from considering farmers just as beneficiaries and passive adopters to considering farmers as real partners who inform and advise the crop improvement process. I would like to conclude the information gained through the publication by referring to the idea that emerges from the compendium, strengthening agricultural biodiversity requires action at the local, regional, national and international levels. The earnestness is clear. Horticultural biodiversity is the key to the eventual fate of food and our planet. The contributors boost upon the significance of supporting group based seed system, and suggest that contributors, governments, analysts, and common society associations adjust their needs to this objective. The Global Alliance for the Future of Food is stressing the significance of farming biodiversity to sustainable food frameworks. Referring the Authors BETTINA HAUSSMANN is the West Africa Liaison Scientist to the McKnight Foundation Collaborative Crop Research Program, and is based at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart, Germany. Haussmanns past work at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Sahelian Centre in Niamey, Niger, resulted in a regionally coordinated strategy for pearl millet improvement in West Africa. JEAN-LOUIS PHAM is a plant geneticist with Institut de recherche pour le dà ©veloppement (IRD), a French interdisciplinary research organization focused on rural issues in Africa, the Mediterranean, Latin America and Asia. Pham has a wealth of field experience in West Africa and the Philippines and is the author of dozens of peer reviewed research papers. He is

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